Definition Of Emotion
This annoys me when I quote it in a derogatory tone, and makes me jealous when I point out that someone has poached my emotional qualities (Taylor, 1975).
Since emotions are feelings, says James, it is difficult to explain how they can be justified in this light, and for this reason, for example, we are difficult to justify sensory experiences such as the taste of chocolate or the feeling of pain. In order to bring light to the feeling in which emotions are justified, a brief detour to the themes of their subject matter, their directness, absurdity and intentionality is required.
The first distinction we have to make is between one particular object and another, the formal object of emotion. In this view, fear and ice are composite mental states, consisting of emotion and the objectless feeling of fear, with the thought of ice as its intended object. An alternative advocated by contemporary emotion theorists is the assertion that emotions are feelings without intended objects.
Historians and other social scientists have assumed that emotions and feelings and expression are regulated by different cultures in different historical times in different ways. Constructivist schools of history claim that feelings and meta-emotions (for example schadenfreude and learning) are not regulated by culture. This is not to say that the conscious experience of emotions is not a central part of our understanding of emotions, but rather we should think about the extent to which we can attribute emotional abilities to animals. We propose to define emotions and emotional processes in such a way that they may be studied in animals as a crucial first step towards future understanding of what we can achieve with subjective and non-human emotional experiences.
By defining emotions as we have done, we can point to the kind of comparative emotional problems that interest and unsettle us. One could say for example, that I am interested in certain animals that experience emotions in a similar manner to humans, but I would like to find out why birds and mammals differ in the range of emotions they show.
In addition to trying to define emotions, researchers are also trying to identify and classify different types of emotions. This model shows that different emotions can be combined and mixed in such a way that artists mix primary colors to create other colors.
Based on this analysis, Turner identified four emotions that researchers believe are rooted in human neurology, including self-conscious anger, aversion, fear, satisfaction, happiness, disappointment, and sadness. These emotions are called primary emotions and, in accordance with the researchers, they are combined to create complex emotional experiences. These emotional experiences are called “first-order elaborations” in Turner’s theory, and include feelings of pride, triumph, and awe.
In 1999, psychologist Paul Eckman added a number of other basic emotions to his list, including shame, pride, disgust, contempt, embarrassment, excitement and amusement. To understand emotions, we should focus on their three key elements, known as subjective experiences, physiological reactions, and behavioral reactions.
Emotions consist of neural circuits (or at least special reaction systems) that sense states and processes that motivate and organize cognition and action. Emotions provide information about a person’s experience with emotion, including background, cognitive assessments and ongoing cognition, including the interpretation of emotional state, expression of social and communicative signals, motivational approaches and avoidance behaviors, and the exercise of control and regulation of reactions of a social and relational nature.
Psychologists know that what you perceive and remember depends in a large measure on what is important to you in the physical sense, shape fundamental processes of perception and memory, and influence the way people perceive and interpret the world around them. For many people, emotions are stimulated or provoked by beauty, art, nature, aesthetics or a sensation of emotion.
The fact that so many people suffer from emotional problems throughout their lives makes the pathology of emotions a lasting social concern. Emotions can be controlled without harming personal well-being or social relationships, and most emotions are functional and adaptable. In Christian thought, emotions have the potential to control reason and reflection.
Brain scans show that the amygdala is a part of the limbic system that plays an important role in emotions, especially anxiety. The amygdala, with its tiny almond-shaped structure, is associated with motivational states such as hunger, thirst, memory and emotions.